iRobot has received ample attention for their particle jamming innovations (ie, the "Jamming Blob Robot" and "Jamming Gripper"), created under the now-expired DARPA Chembot program. However, if you're like me, their particle jamming actuators and hexapod "JamBot" probably alluded your attention -- and they're stinkin' cool! That said, I'd like to introduce you to the "Hexapod JamBot" and the "Jamming Modulated Unimorph (JMU) actuator" created by researchers at iRobot and the Jaeger Group at the University of Chicago.
I'm really excited about inflatable robots... they have the potential to be low-cost, lightweight, extremely powerful, and yet "human safe" -- ie. perfect for many robotics applications. With that in mind, I would like to introduce you to two new (breakout) inflatable robots: a 15-foot-long walking robot (a Pneubot named Ant-Roach) and a complete, inflatable robot arm (plus hand). Both of these robots were developed by Otherlab as part of their "pneubotics" project (in collaboration with Meka Robotics and Manu Prakash at Stanford University), with some funding from DARPA's Maximum Mobility and Manipulation (M3) program. These robots use textile-based, inflatable actuators that contract upon inflation into specially-designed shapes to effect motion. Since these robots are built out of lightweight fabric-and-air structural members and powered via pneumatics or hydraulics, they exhibit large strength-to-weight ratios. For example, Ant-Roach is less than 70 lbs and can probably support up to 1000 lbs; the inflatable robot arm is less than 2 lbs and can lift a few hundred pounds at 50-60 psi. Be sure to read on for details and lots of videos!
This article is specifically for folks in academia... When writing a journal paper, targeting the right venue is an important consideration. There are lots of factors that go into this decision: audience, prestige, historical topics of interest, turn-around time, open access, etc. Discussing all the considerations in detail is too taxing and is probably not actionable (it's too dependent on your research and goals). But I thought I'd share... I'm tracking the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factors for various robotics journals. In very general terms, the impact factors can give you a rough approximation of journal quality and help you target your publications. You can find a historical plot of robotics journals' impact factors (along with the latest values) below. I'll try to keep these up to date.
I would like to introduce you to a new "elastomeric rolling robot" -- a soft robot made of inflatable, silicone actuators that pressurize in sequence to make the robot move. This new robot hails from MIT's Distributed Robotics Laboratory and has a major distinguishing feature compared to other soft robots: it is entirely self-contained -- no more off-board electronics or pneumatics; everything is on-board. Two technologies facilitated this new robot: (1) A "pneumatic battery" that uses mechanical feedback to self-regulate a chemical (hydrogen peroxide) reaction and maintain a stable pressure inside the robot's on-board pressure vessel. (2) An energy-efficient pneumatic valve design based on electropermanent magnets (one of my favorite topics!). These two new technologies were just presented at recent robotics conferences (ISRR 2011 and IROS 2011). Be sure to check out the video below.
Vibrobots (and bristlebots) are simple robots that use a tiny pager / cellphone vibrator motor (with an eccentric weight) to randomly bounce around -- they are the subject of many Maker / DIY projects as well as some well-known commercial toys (such as the $7.00 Hexbug Nano). Naghi Sotoudeh, a Hizook reader from Iran, contacted us about his latest project: a remote controlled micro-scale vibrobot (measuring just 18 x 12 x 10 mm) that uses two vibrator motors to achieve steerable motion without any wheels. Naghi's design is similar to some previous steerable vibrobots (eg. the Harvard Kilobot project), but the vibrator motor arrangement gives his design a nice, distinctive faux-wheel look. The hardware is fairly simple: a small PCB, two vibrator motors, a microcontroller, an infrared photodiode, and a very small battery. In general, the software for this type of robot isn't too bad either. In short, this could be a great DIY project and potentially a nice mass-market product. What do you think... Would you fork over your hard-earned money for a RC vibrobot kit or pre-built RC vibrobot?
It's that time of year again... MIT Technology Review announced their 2011 "Young Innovators Under 35" Awards (TR35). This year two roboticists are among the recipients: Brian Gerkey and Pieter Abbeel. Brian Gerkey is currently the "Director of Open Source Development" at Willow Garage, where he architects ROS (the Robot Operating System). ROS is quickly becoming the world's standard robot software platform, supplanting Player --which was also developed by Brian. Pieter Abbeel, a professor at UC Berkeley, has done some cool stuff with the PR2 (eg. towel folding) as well as really nice machine learning work on autonomous helicopter acrobatics. Now we can add Brian and Pieter to the ranks of past TR35 robotics recipients: Aaron Dollar (2010), Andrea Thomaz (2009), Andrew Ng (2008), Robert Wood (2008), Josh Bongard (2007). I'm noticing a nice trend... Hopefully TR35's love for robotics continues.
The Swarmanoid project is a cool twist on swarm robotics -- researchers use a heterogeneous swarm of robots to achieve distributed mobile manipulation. The swarm is comprised of three different robot varieties: Hand-Bots (manipulation and climbing), Foot-Bots (wheeled mobility and sensing), and Eye-Bots (quadrotors for recon and sensing). The latest video of Swarmanoid retrieving a book won the "Best Video Award" at the Artificial Intelligence Conference (AAAI 2011) in San Francisco just the other day. You can check out the robots and winning video below.
News just broke on XinHuaNet (via Slashdot) that Foxconn, a Taiwanese company with more than 1M Chinese laborers on the mainland, plans to deploy one million robots(!) over the next three years -- a 100-fold increase over current numbers. This should serve as a wake-up call for the United States. China already dominates in manufacturing; if they can capture the "new" flexible, light manufacturing space too, then the United States will be in dire straits (National Robotics Initiative or not). One commentor on HackerNews suggests that the robots will be ABB's Frida. Of course this needs more substantiation, but ABB isn't exactly a newcomer to industrial robotics; the Swiss company has been around for ages. Still, it would be mildly surprising if ABB wins out over all the competition (eg. Heartland Robotics) that are specifically trying to establish themselves as pioneers in "flexible, light manufacturing." The future of robotics certainly looks interesting!
Robotis has just announced a new line of Dynamixel Servos: the MX-series, beginning with the release of the MX-28. The MX-28 servo has some distinct improvements over its RX-28 brethren: 12-bit (0.088°) angular resolution (four times that of the RX), full 360° controlled rotation (rather than 300°), non-contact magnetic encoders (not subject to mechanical wear), etc. -- and all for about the same price (MX-28: $219.90 MSRP, RX-28: $200)! Of note, the MX-28 is prominently featured as part of the new DARwin-OP humanoid -- the recent Nao competitor that Robotis created in collaboration with Virginia Tech's RoMeLa Lab. Perhaps best of all... Hizook was selected as a beta tester for this new servo (probably owing to our prominent coverage of the RX-series and our awesome cross-platform open-source Robotis software library). We were impressed with the new MX-28 -- read on for details, including an exclusive look inside the new servo as well as a quick tutorial using the updated open-source drivers (in python, complete with ROS bindings).
ICRA 2011 kicks off in less than two weeks in Shanghai, China. Unfortunately, I won't be attending -- I'll have to wait to see y'all at IROS 2011 in San Francisco come September. However, I was browsing through the program and it looks like there are going to be a lot of great talks! A few that caught my eye: Morgan Quigley's low-cost 7 degree-of-freedom (7-DoF) series elastic actuator (SEA) arm for sub-$5k, Aaron Dollar's helicopter-mounted shape deposition manufacturing (SDM) hand, and Rollin' Justin's fast reflexes to catch flying (tossed) balls... and these are just the talks that have videos posted online already (embedded below). Eventually I'll get around to writing about all this cool research (after finishing my dissertation in a few months!) -- but for the time being, here's a quick scatter-shot overview.
Carol Reiley, a surgical robotics PhD student at Johns Hopkins' Computational Interaction and Robotics Laboratory, wrote in to share how they unwind after a long day of research. She writes, "Here's a video of the Johns Hopkins Robotics lab playing the board game Operation on the $1.3M dollar (Da Vinci Surgical) robot. The video emphasizes the robot's precision and hand tremor reduction as well as how difficult Operation is to play, even with a robot. :-)" Fun, whimsical, and a bit meta. Surgical roboticists seem to enjoy themselves; seems like just yesterday they were using the robot to make little paper airplanes or produce dance videos.
Perhaps you remember Garratt Gallagher -- he's the ROS / Kinect hacker responsible for 30% of all entries in the recent Kinect / ROS 3D competition, in which he won first place for Impromptu Buttons (his other entries such as Finger Detection, People Follower, Kinect Minority Report Interface, etc. were also quite impressive). However I want to introduce you to his most exciting project to date: Bilibot. Started in December and funded with $5,500 through KickStarter, the Bilibot Project is an open source effort to create an affordable robotics platform based on the iRobot Create, Kinect, and a computer pre-installed and pre-configured with Ubuntu and ROS. The goal is to create a platform for hackers, enthusiasts, and researchers that works right out of the box without the (often daunting) challenge of installing and configuring Ubuntu and ROS. Frankly, the $150 Kinect may be popular in the gaming industry, but it will completely revolutionize robotics -- it is an amazing sensor, and the Bilibot project aims to make it even more accessible.
This is a guest essay by Fred Nikgohar. Fred is the CEO of RoboDynamics, makers of the TiLR robot which was recently featured in a New York Times overview of telepresence robots. Fred argues that we've reached a watershed moment in robotics facilitated by cheap 3D sensors like Microsoft's Kinect (ie. PrimeSense RGB-D camera) -- that the Kinect provides a roadmap where "the best solution to complex, low-cost sensing (or actuation for that matter) is to take advantage of affordable, mass-produced components, complementing them with the innovative use of software solutions that benefit from constantly declining prices of computation."
I would like to introduce you to iRobot's latest prototype: a new telepresence robot named AVA that was unveiled this week at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES 2011) -- see the video below. Through AVA, iRobot intends to explicitly leverage the proliferation of tablets / smart phones and their associated app stores. They intend to furnish actuation (mobile base, pan-tilt unit, telescoping linear actuator spine, etc.), a sensor suite (including sonar, laser, and a depth camera like Microsoft's Kinect), and basic robot software (eg. obstacle avoidance, mapping, and direct physical interfaces). Meanwhile, you provide the brains in the form of a tablet (eg. iPad or Android). In theory, this should open up mobile robot application development to a much broader audience, creating the oft-discussed robot app store. When combined with the recent announcement of the Scooba 230 floor cleaning robot (which I will certainly purchase), I would say iRobot is still innovating!
Many folks visiting Hizook today are looking for a "robot coffee machines," specifically, the Tassimo BrewBot by Bosch. In actuality, BrewBot is not a robot at all! They are using a cute robot coffee machine to sell decidedly non-robot coffee makers, and it makes me sad... I want the actual robot! Either way, kudos to the clever marketers at Bosch for making such a great commercial (embedded below). In the meantime, if you're interested in seeing a real coffee making and delivering robot, go check out the Nestlé Nespresso Nesbot. Dang it, now I've got a hankering for an espresso...
Take a moment and envision an electromagnet: a simple coiled wire driven by a hefty electrical current gives a fully-programmable magnetic field strength (on, off, and everything between). Electromagnets are ubiquitous, but it turns out that there is a little-known device with similar functionality yet zero static power consumption -- they are called electropermanent magnets, and they've been around and in use since the 1960's! A 2010 PhD thesis by MIT Media Lab's Ara Knaian examines the physics, scaling, trade-offs, and several new actuator designs (eg. stepper motors) using these little-known wonders. Recently, electropermanent magnets facilitated an innovation in "programmable matter," where they were instrumental in creating the world's smallest self-contained modular robots to date (12mm/side). Read on for details about this fascinating technology, along with discussions about existing and possible robotic applications.
Heartland Robotics, the stealthy robotics startup founded by iRobot co-founder and robotics legend Rod Brooks, was in the news again last week after closing a $20M financing round. Little is known about the company beyond broad superlatives from executives about building robots to "increase productivity and revitalize manufacturing." Now, successful fundraising by a robotics startup is great news, but alone it was insufficient to draw my laser-focus away from thesis work. However, a Boston.com article this weekend provided a tantalizing new nugget of information that I absolutely must share -- Heartland is working on a new mobile manipulator with a $5,000 projected price point complete with one or two arms, grippers, sensor head, and a mobile base. If coupled with a depth camera (eg. Kinect) and a decent computer, this could be a really compelling robot platform! If this price point is real, perhaps those superlatives aren't so inflated after all...
After many years of searching for the perfect telescoping linear actuator, I would like to share my discovery of the I-Lock Spiralift 75 (ILS75) prototype by Paco Spiralift. The ILS75 has a compact form factor (10x15x15 cm) that can telescope out to 1.6 meters while lifting a 175kg load (350+ lbs). It relies on a system of interlocking horizontal and vertical metal bands that "unroll" to lift a load, a process best illustrated in the videos embedded below. The ILS75 is just one Spiralift offering; others range all the way up to a goliath version (Spiralift ND18) that can lift an 11,000 kg load 12 meters (25,000 lbs to 40 ft). To date, Spiralift mechanisms have been applied to theater stage-lift systems and automotive lifts. At Hizook, we believe robotics is a compelling application, especially as a robot's vertical spine (eg. on EL-E, Cody, and PR2) -- increasing the robot's effective workspace to include floor and tables, and also for compact and easy transportation. As such, we're working with Paco Spiralift to gauge roboticsts' interest and vet the technical specs of the ILS75 -- tell us what you think in the comments.
A few weeks ago, my labmates from Georgia Tech's Healthcare Robotics Lab presented a paper at IROS 2010 entitled, "Towards an Assistive Robot that Autonomously Performs Bed Baths for Patient Hygiene." Their work used Cody, a robot with compliant arms, and a specialized "bath mitt" end effector to perform wiping motions that could clean selected areas of an actual person's body, including the upper arm, forearm, thigh, and leg. In this robotic cleaning task, the robot initiated and actively made contact with a human. The psychological impact of such robot-initiated contact is an interesting question -- one I believe will be important for future healthcare and human-robot interaction (HRI) tasks. Read on for a video and discussion by the authors.
KUKA has developed an impressive array of omnidirectional robot platforms: OmniMove, OmniRob, and youBot. A new video on the youBot Store shows how an OmniMove holonomic base (containing eight mecanum wheels) can be transformed into a seriously heavy-lifting mobile manipulator through the addition of a huge Titan robot arm, which has been called the "world's strongest robot arm" and is capable of lifting 1000 kg. The video (embedded below) shows this latest platform towering over the smaller youBot platform. I wonder if this new platform would qualify for BattleBots...? It would make for a fun exposition match!
Apparently novel robot end-effectors are popular this week (see the particle jamming robot grippers), as we've spotted another: a previously-unseen robot gripper from SRI International that uses an electrically controlled reversible adhesion called electroadhesion. We've looked at SRI's electroadhesive wall-climbing robots before, where electrostatic forces are able to support extreme loads with relatively little power consumption. Several friends and I ruminated about the possibility of embedding the electrodes in a robot's gripper to ease manipulation, but it seems SRI beat us to the punch. It also looks like they're developing general-purpose, highly-compliant electroadhesive pads for a variety of applications; according to the specifications, I should be able to walk up a wood wall using a pad of less than 16x16 inches2 while consuming less than 18 milli-Watts -- cool stuff! Few details are currently available, so I will post updates in the comments as we learn more. In the meantime... pictures!
Remember that compliant "jamming" end effector unveiled by Colin Angle (iRobot CEO) at TEDMED 2009? Even then, it was demonstrated picking up medication bottles, keys, and water bottles (a hand-held version was also demonstrated). Well, it just got a whole-lot more official with the publication of "Universal robotic gripper based on the jamming of granular material" in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The cool thing about this method of grasping is its relative simplicity: a rubber sack (balloon) filled with coffee grounds is pressed onto an object, it conforms to the object's natural contours, and the air is pumped out (a volume change less than 0.5%) to form a stable grasp-- no complex grasp planning required. Be sure to check out the new video and photos!
Dejan Pangercic of the Intelligent Autonomous Systems Group at TUM (Technische Universität München) wrote in to show us a cool dual-robot demonstration where a PR2 robot (TUM's James) and TUM-Rosie combine their efforts to prepare and deliver pancakes -- Yum! The demonstration system is quite impressive, featuring: door and drawer opening, object recognition, grasping and manipulation, navigation, multi-robot cooperation, etc. The demo seems to use a fair bit of stock ROS functionality, as well as some new functionality and CRAM integration (Cognitive Robot Abstract Machine, a reasoning framework from TUM). I'm anxious to learn more about the system: assumptions, limitations, and methods. Hopefully more advanced details are forthcoming. Check out the video below.
Yesterday Georgia Tech's PR2 robot made a LIVE appearance on CNN. The event was accompanied by interviews of Dr. Charlie Kemp (director of Georgia Tech's Healthcare Robotics Lab and my advisor) and Keenan Wyrobek (Willow Garage figurehead). Travis Deyle (yours truly) was also present and responsible for the robot demonstration. While some of the PR2's movements (some driving, waving to the audience, etc) were scripted or teleoperated via joystick, the actual medication delivery demonstration was fully autonomous and used UHF RFID sensing (a major component of my PhD research), the base laser rangefinder, and a slightly-modified TrajectoryPlannerROS. The demo went off without a hitch, and as Keenan mentioned on the PR2-Users mailing list, "Their demo is a milestone (albeit a gutsy one) for PR2. The first nationally televised, LIVE, sensor-based demo with a PR2." Check out the video (embedded below), as well as some behind-the-scenes pictures of the PR2 inside CNN's studio.